The involucre encloses the fruit, which is thus dispersed as a hard, nut-like package.

Ambrosia, Cyclachaena, Iva, and Xanthium, with their copious wind-dispersed pollen, all can cause hay-fever. They tend to avoid some of the blame by blooming inconspicuously at the same time of year as more colorful but innocent genera, e.g., Solidago (goldenrod), which have showy heads and insect-dispersed pollen.

1. Leaves 3 (–5)-lobed (± palmate) or simple, all opposite.

A. trifida

1. Leaves once or more pinnatifid, the upper ones tending to be alternate.

2. Leaves once- to thrice-pinnatifid, smooth to scabrous above with tiny appressed hairs, any longer hairs spreading; plants annual, from a taproot.

A. artemisiifolia

2. Leaves once-pinnatifid, rough above with ± appressed stiff hairs; plants perennial, with deep, horizontal roots.

A. psilostachya

All species found in Ambrosia

Ambrosia artemisiifoliaCOMMON RAGWEED 
Ambrosia psilostachyaWESTERN RAGWEED 
Ambrosia trifidaGIANT RAGWEED 


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. September 27, 2022.