True rushes are easily distinguished from grasses and sedges, with which they are sometimes confused, by the presence of a true perianth of 6 tepals and a 3–many-seeded capsule rather than a 1-seeded grain or achene.

1. Foliage completely glabrous; capsules usually many-seeded.


1. Foliage ± hairy, at least toward summit of sheaths; capsules 3-seeded.



MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. September 30, 2022. https://michiganflora.net/family.aspx?id=Juncaceae.