1. Leaves alternate, needle-like but deciduous, soft and pliable in 2-ranked flattened sprays.


1. Leaves opposite or whorled, evergreen, scale-like or if needle like, then hard, sharply pointed, and not 2-ranked.

2. Mature female cones fleshy and berry-like, up to 8 (–10) mm long, green or bluish, the scales fused; leaves opposite or whorled, needle-like, or if scale-like and appressed then quite uniform (none keeled) and ultimate branchlets ± quadrangular.


2. Mature female cones brown and ± woody, ca. 8–15 mm long, the elongate scales distinct; leaves all opposite and appressed, scale-like, dimorphic (a pair of opposite strongly keeled leaves at right angles to adjacent pair of flat leaves), ultimate branchlets strongly flattened.



MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. November 29, 2022.