Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Native west of Michigan, this species has been spreading eastward, almost entirely along railroads. The first Michigan collection was from a railroad in St. Joseph Co. in 1951.
St. Joseph County
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. February 24, 2018. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=84.