Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
RED LOBELIA, CARDINAL-FLOWER
Swamps and floodplain forests; thickets and open ground along rivers and streams; marshes, wet shores, ditches, and swales.
The rich red flowers with their long corolla tube are pollinated normally by hummingbirds; however, bees may visit the flowers and gather nectar through the slits on the sides of the corolla. Hybrids with L. siphilitica [L. ×speciosa Sweet] can be produced artificially, and rarely occur in nature (none reported from Michigan). Some very showy hybrids, including triploids and tetraploids, are in cultivation.
White-flowered plants occur occasionally throughout the range, and are striking in appearance [f. alba (McNab) H. St. John]. Plants with the corollas an intermediate pink may be found with the red and white forms.