Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Sandy shores and dunes (old and young); dry, usually sandy, savanna and openings with oak, hickory, sassafras, and/or jack pine; limestone crevices and gravels around the Niagara Escarpment, and on other sedimentary and granitic rock outcrops and crevices elsewhere; prairies, dry meadows, and river banks, thickets; occasionally along roadsides.
While the corolla is usually blue, white-flowered plants [f. albiflora E. L. Rand & Redfield in North America] are occasionally found, together with intermediate shades. One collection from Presque Isle Co. has all of the floral parts doubled. Plants with the vegetative parts and ovaries ± densely puberulent were described from Michigan (TL: Indian River, Cheboygan Co.) in 1878 as var. canescens E. J. Hill.