Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Roadsides, along railways, and ditch banks; an Old World species, rarely escaped from cultivation and first collected in 1938 in Kalamazoo Co.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 14, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=41.