Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
An Asian species, very locally established in old fields, thickets, and disturbed forests; first collected by A. A. Reznicek in 2016 in rural Washtenaw Co.
See under Rhamnus utilis for a discussion of potentially confusing hybrids.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 13, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2937.