Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
An eastern North American species, native as far west as eastern Ontario, but sometimes planted in Michigan. Collected by W. S. Martinus in 2011 spreading aggressively onto sand dunes in Ottawa Co. from a nearby plantation, with young trees to 5 m tall and already bearing cones present.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 11, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2895.