Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Rich deciduous forests, especially along rivers. The overall outline of the leaf blade is decidedly heart-shaped, much more so than V. riparia.
St. Joseph County
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. September 2, 2015. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2808.