Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A native of Europe, local along gravelly roadsides, parking lots, fields, shores. Collected in disturbed places as early as 1895, in Bay Co.
Plants with enlarged marginal flowers and brown phyllary appendages, but with some of the middle and outer appendages strongly fringed, are hybrids with C. nigra, named C. ×moncktonii C. E. Britton (C. ×pratensis of Michigan Flora). There is full gradation toward the parents, especially C. jacea.