Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A western North American species, occasionally cultivated and very locally established in thick shrubbery in Mecosta Co., where collected by S. Ross in 2001.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. February 19, 2018. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2412.