Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Native mostly south and east of our area. First collected from Lansing, Ingham Co. in 1877, but lack of data causes doubt about the origin of this specimen. More recent collections from Wayne Co. are in a diversity of habitats; old fields, openings in moist forests along streams, and along ditches and railways. Generally assumed to be introduced, but Spooner et al. (1985) argue for the nativity of Great Lakes region populations.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 12, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1679.