Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Moist often sandy soil (e.g., shores) but also in clay and in disturbed ground of roadsides, old trails, etc.
The leaf sheaths lack auricles at the summit, thus distinguishing this annual species from unusual individuals of the perennial J. tenuis, J. dudleyi, and J. pelocarpus that might appear similar.
Our common plants, native throughout, are var. bufonius, with the flowers scattered, sometimes virtually throughout the plant, not clustered apically. A few collections from sandy shores and roadsides in Alcona, Arenac, Chippewa, Delta, Houghton, Huron, Muskegon, Oakland, and St. Clair Cos. are the var. congestus Wahlenb. with the flowers more densely clustered apically on the stem. This is introduced from Europe; it was noted from one Muskegon Co. collection, as forma congestus, in Michigan Flora Vol. 1 but without commentary.