Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A European species well established in sandy disturbed ground at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Cheboygan Co.) since 1929; only occasionally collected elsewhere.
The flowers are ca. 2–4 mm long, even smaller than in V. tetrasperma.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 12, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1363.