Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Introduced into cultivation from Europe, where it is a heathland dominant on acid soils where there has been human disturbance. Many cultivars are grown. Locally escaped in North America. First collected in 1961 (D. J. Hagenah 4743, BLH, MICH) along a roadside in eastern Mackinac Co., where it has spread into open, second-growth mixed forests and presumably still persists. Apparently planted in a borrow pit along highway US-10 in Midland Co.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 18, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1209.