Often placed in its own family, the Empetraceae (as in Michigan Flora, Vol. 2), but now shown to be a wind-pollinated member of the Ericaceae (Anderberg, 1994).
All species found in Empetrum
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. May 26, 2017. http://michiganflora.net/genus.aspx?id=Empetrum.